The Bedford Bibliography of Research in Online Writing Instruction (Updated 2019)

Document created by Karita dos Santos Employee on Jan 24, 2017Last modified by Heidi Skurat Harris on Mar 19, 2020
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The Bedford Bibliography of Research in Writing Instruction contains over 540 annotations of resources in online writing instruction (OWI) from 1990 to 2019.


OWI in this context is defined as “using computer technology to learn writing from a teacher, tutor, or other students and by using it to communicate about that writing, share writing for learning purposes, and to present writing for course completion purposes. Being online can mean working at a geographic distance or even in an onsite computer lab using technology that enables the learning about and sharing of writing; in essence, the computer technology facilitates the communication about writing, often through an LMS" (Hewett, “Grounding Principles for OWI” 36).


This bibliography is organized according to the CCCC Position Statement of Principles and Example Effective Practices in OWI (2014). The bibliography aids researchers in online writing instruction by providing current research vetted by experts in the field.


Introduction to the Updated Bedford Bibliography of Research in Online Writing Instruction  

New Annotations to Bedford Bibliography of Research in Online Writing Instruction  


Accessibility Principle

Principle 1: Online writing instruction should be universally inclusive and accessible.


Instructional Principles

Principle 2: An online writing course should focus on writing and not on technology orientation or teaching students how to use and learn other technologies. 

Principle 3: Appropriate composition teaching/learning strategies should be developed for the unique features of the online instructional environment.

Principle 4: Appropriate onsite composition theories, pedagogies, and strategies should be migrated and adapted to the online instructional environment.  

Principle 5: Online writing teachers should maintain reasonable control over their own content and/or techniques for conveying, teaching, and assessing their students' writing in their OWCs.

Principle 6: Alternative, self-paced, or experimental OWI models should be subject to the same principles of pedagogical soundness, teacher/designer preparation, and oversight detailed in this document.


Faculty Principles

Principle 7: Writing Program Administrators (WPAs) for OWI programs and their online writing teachers should receive appropriate OWI-focused training, professional development, and assessment for evaluation and promotion purposes.  

Principle 8: Online writing teachers should receive fair and equitable compensation for their work.  

Principle 9: OWCs should be capped responsibly at 20 students per course with 15 being a preferable number.


Institutional Principles 

Principle 10: Students should be prepared by the institution and their teachers for the unique technological and pedagogical components of OWI. 

Principle 11: Online writing teachers and their institutions should develop personalized and interpersonal online communities to foster student success. 

Principle 12: Institutions should foster teacher satisfaction in online writing courses as rigorously as they do for student and programmatic success.

Principle 13: OWI students should be provided support components through online/digital media as a primary resource; they should have access to onsite support as a secondary set of resources.

Principle 14: Online writing lab administrators and tutors should undergo selection, training, and ongoing professional development activities that match the environment in which they should work.


Research Principle

Principle 15: OWI/OWL administrators and teachers/tutors should be committed to ongoing research into their programs and courses as well as the very principles in this document.



Bedford Bibliography of Research in Online Writing Instruction: Alphabetical by Author  

Forward to Bedford Bibliography of Research in Online Writing Instruction (1st edition)



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