Document created by Digital Support on Jan 25, 2017Last modified by Digital Support on Apr 23, 2018
Version 14Show Document

The way in which the individual activity scores are summed or averaged to give the overall score is called the aggregation. The aggregation for the gradebook (and each subcategory, if applicable) can be one of the following options.

• Mean of grades: All activities are weighted equally regardless of the number of points each is worth. In other words, the scores are normalized before being averaged. Example: (70/100 + 20/80 + 10/10)/3 = (0.7 + 0.25 + 1.0)/3 = 0.65 = 65/100
• Weighted mean of grades: You must enter a weight for each score. The weights are relative and do not need to sum to any particular value.
• Simple weighted mean of grades (Recommended): uses the point-value of each activity as its relative weight. 70/100 + 20/80 + 10/10 = 100/190 = 52.6/100
• Mean of grades (with extra credits): Unsupported aggregation provided here only for backward compatibility with old activities.
• Median of grades: The middle grade (or the mean of the two middle grades) when grades are arranged in order of size.
• Sum of grades: Straight sum with no normalization. Although this aggregation results in the same overall score as Simple weighted mean, it does not offer an option to “aggregate only non-empty”, that is, count only the scores that have been assigned so far. Example: 70/100 + 20/80 + 10/10 = 100/190

## To change the aggregation

### Click "Full View"

In the column labeled Aggregation, you’ll see a drop-down menu for each category or subcategory in your course. Click in the menu and select the desired choice. The page will refresh and your changes will automatically be saved.

A grade category is a way to group activities that should be aggregated separately from others. For example, if you have both homework and essays in Sapling Learning, you may want to create a Homework category to produce a “Homework Average” that is separate from the “Essay Average” in the Essays category. Categories can be nested inside other categories. The aggregation for each category or subcategory can be set individually.

In the example below you can see the Practice/Pre-reqs category and the Ch 1 category each denoted by a blue header and their own Aggregation drop-down.

## To create a grade category

### Click the "Categories and Items" tab

Click on the image to zoom in.

## To edit an existing grade category

### Edit category

Click the pencil icon in the shaded bar containing the category name. This will take you to a page where you can edit all of the category settings.

### Category settings

Here are the options available to you when creating or editing a grade category. You may need to click Show Advanced to see all options.

• Category name
• Aggregation
• Aggregate only non-empty grades: When checked, blank scores are ignored in the overall score. When unchecked, a blank score is treated as a zero toward the overall score.
• Included excluded or in-progress grades: When checked, green scores always count toward the overall score. When unchecked, green scores only count for open-ended activities (those with no due date). To ignore all green scores, make sure this option is unchecked and that your activities all have due dates.
• Keep the highest and Drop the lowest (optional): Choose None to ignore. Drop the lowest will override the Keep the highest setting if both are set to a number. For more information, see the help article Drop the Lowest n Grades.
• Category total name: This label will show up next to the overall score for that category. If left blank, the label will show as “Category total” in the gradebook.
• Item info: A space for entering information about the item. Text entered does not appear anywhere else.
• ID number: Setting an ID number provides a way of identifying the activity for manual grade calculation purposes. If the activity is not included in any manual grade calculation then the ID number field can be left blank. The ID numbers may also be set on the formula page.
• Grade type: Use Value for nearly every case. None may be used if you don’t want to have an overall score for that category (or to hide the overall score from students). Text may be used if you want to use the feedback field only. Scale is not supported.
• Maximum grade: the total number of points the category is worth. This is auto-set for the sum aggregation, but configurable in other aggregations. Choose 100 to display scores as percentages. For Flash-based activities (those with the leaf icon ), a change made to the max grade (denominator) will automatically scale the numerator accordingly (e.g., if you change the max grade from 100 to 50, a score of 40/100 changes to 20/50). Scores for external grade items do not scale with the max grade.
• Grade to pass: Sets a threshold above which the overall scores show as green and below which they show as red.
• Grade display type: Choose real, percentage, letter, or any combination of two of those. Letter grade cut-offs may be set on the Letters tab.
• Overall decimal points: Specifies the number of decimal points to display for each grade. This setting has no effect on grade calculations, which are made with an accuracy of five decimal places.
• Hidden: Check the box to hide this category from students. Note that this hides the whole category and everything in it, not just the overall score. Checking this box is equivalent to closing the eye icon on the Categories and Items page.
• Hidden until: Choose a date on which the category will become visible to students.
• Locked: Prevents the score from changing even if the student continues to do work.
• Locked after: Choose a date after which the score can no longer change.

Click Save Changes at the bottom when done editing these settings.

## Extra Credit

### Check the box in the "Extra Credit" column or move item into "Extra Credit" category

In most aggregations, any item or category can be made extra credit by clicking the checkbox in the Extra Credit column. If your course already has an Extra Credit category, you can move activities to that category to make them extra credit rather than checking the box for the assignment itself.

The way in which the individual activity scores are summed or averaged to give the overall score is called the aggregation. The aggregation for the gradebook (and each subcategory, if applicable) can be one of the following options.

• Mean of grades: All activities are weighted equally regardless of the number of points each is worth. In other words, the scores are normalized before being averaged. Example: (70/100 + 20/80 + 10/10)/3 = (0.7 + 0.25 + 1.0)/3 = 0.65 = 65/100
• Weighted mean of grades: You must enter a weight for each score. The weights are relative and do not need to sum to any particular value.
• Simple weighted mean of grades (Recommended): uses the point-value of each activity as its relative weight. 70/100 + 20/80 + 10/10 = 100/190 = 52.6/100
• Mean of grades (with extra credits): Unsupported aggregation provided here only for backward compatibility with old activities.
• Median of grades: The middle grade (or the mean of the two middle grades) when grades are arranged in order of size.
• Sum of grades: Straight sum with no normalization. Although this aggregation results in the same overall score as Simple weighted mean, it does not offer an option to “aggregate only non-empty”, that is, count only the scores that have been assigned so far. Example: 70/100 + 20/80 + 10/10 = 100/190

## To change the aggregation

### Click "Full View"

In the column labeled Aggregation, you’ll see a drop-down menu for each category or subcategory in your course. Click in the menu and select the desired choice. The page will refresh and your changes will automatically be saved.

A grade category is a way to group activities that should be aggregated separately from others. For example, if you have both homework and essays in Sapling Learning, you may want to create a Homework category to produce a “Homework Average” that is separate from the “Essay Average” in the Essays category. Categories can be nested inside other categories. The aggregation for each category or subcategory can be set individually.

In the example below you can see the Practice/Pre-reqs category and the Ch 1 category each denoted by a blue header and their own Aggregation drop-down.

## To edit an existing grade category

### Edit category

Click the pencil icon in the shaded bar containing the category name. This will take you to a page where you can edit all of the category settings.

### Category settings

Here are the options available to you when creating or editing a grade category. You may need to click Show Advanced to see all options.

• Category name
• Aggregation
• Aggregate only non-empty grades: When checked, blank scores are ignored in the overall score. When unchecked, a blank score is treated as a zero toward the overall score.
• Included excluded or in-progress grades: When checked, green scores always count toward the overall score. When unchecked, green scores only count for open-ended activities (those with no due date). To ignore all green scores, make sure this option is unchecked and that your activities all have due dates.
• Keep the highest and Drop the lowest (optional): Choose None to ignore. Drop the lowest will override the Keep the highest setting if both are set to a number. For more information, see the help article Drop the Lowest n Grades.
• Category total name: This label will show up next to the overall score for that category. If left blank, the label will show as “Category total” in the gradebook.
• Item info: A space for entering information about the item. Text entered does not appear anywhere else.
• ID number: Setting an ID number provides a way of identifying the activity for manual grade calculation purposes. If the activity is not included in any manual grade calculation then the ID number field can be left blank. The ID numbers may also be set on the formula page.
• Grade type: Use Value for nearly every case. None may be used if you don’t want to have an overall score for that category (or to hide the overall score from students). Text may be used if you want to use the feedback field only. Scale is not supported.
• Maximum grade: the total number of points the category is worth. This is auto-set for the sum aggregation, but configurable in other aggregations. Choose 100 to display scores as percentages. For Flash-based activities (those with the leaf icon ), a change made to the max grade (denominator) will automatically scale the numerator accordingly (e.g., if you change the max grade from 100 to 50, a score of 40/100 changes to 20/50). Scores for external grade items do not scale with the max grade.
• Grade to pass: Sets a threshold above which the overall scores show as green and below which they show as red.
• Grade display type: Choose real, percentage, letter, or any combination of two of those. Letter grade cut-offs may be set on the Letters tab.
• Overall decimal points: Specifies the number of decimal points to display for each grade. This setting has no effect on grade calculations, which are made with an accuracy of five decimal places.
• Hidden: Check the box to hide this category from students. Note that this hides the whole category and everything in it, not just the overall score. Checking this box is equivalent to closing the eye icon on the Categories and Items page.
• Hidden until: Choose a date on which the category will become visible to students.
• Locked: Prevents the score from changing even if the student continues to do work.
• Locked after: Choose a date after which the score can no longer change.

Click Save Changes at the bottom when done editing these settings.

## Extra Credit

### Check the box in the "Extra Credit" column or move item into "Extra Credit" category

In most aggregations, any item or category can be made extra credit by clicking the checkbox in the Extra Credit column. If your course already has an Extra Credit category, you can move activities to that category to make them extra credit rather than checking the box for the assignment itself.