Yes, you can! There are a few things to consider first so here's what you need to know.
See if the computer meets the minimum system requirements for your course
To be sure your course functions properly, read the help article What are the minimum system requirements for your media?. If your computer doesn't meet these requirements--for example if the only available browser is outdated--you might let your instructor know so that she can speak with the lab administrator.
Be sure you're logging in to the correct courseThe best way to ensure that you are logged in correctly is by opening your course URL in a private or incognito window.
Another student may have used the computer before you to access a course at another course URL. Going directly to your course URL in a private window prevents you from accidentally switching yourself into another course or completing work in another student's account. If you don't know your course URL, check your e-mail or your class page on your campus course management system to see if your instructor sent it to you or posted it on your class page. If you can't find it in any of these places, ask your instructor for it.
When you've finished in your course, log out
Don't forget to log out to protect your account and your work from the next user of that computer.